Areas of Research (Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Subtractive Manufacturing and Additive Manufacturing)

Below, I have assembled some information in regards to the research and work that I have been conducting in the various fields of Mechanical, Electrical, Subtractive & Additive Engineering. Throughout 2016 I will present additional material; any feedback is sincerely appreciated.

Introduction

Most of my engineering internships started when I was at the age of 14 and have continued to my current age of 36. For the past 16 years, I have spent an extensive amount of time to become an industry recognized expert in core storage, connectivity and virtualization performance engineering. Our industry toolsets are ever changing which enables endless possibilities. My overall goal has been to combine different areas of engineering to create a very large toolset to solve very complex problems. I have always been fascinated with the Nasa Saturn V and Rocketdyne F-1 programs and studied them intensely. These programs are both key examples in reference to highly specific engineering disciplines coming together to solve very complex problems. These men and women reached beyond the unthinkable with slide rulers and very primitive computing systems. Technology has expanded our toolsets to the point of endless possibilities.

I have studied and researched on many areas in relation to mechanical, electrical engineering and industrial design to rethink the design of a product, how it integrates with its environment and it's process. My area of focus has been to tie in high speed storage, high speed networking and high speed computing coupled with all of the elements in reference to rapid prototyping (CAD, CAM, CNC, 3D Scanning, 3D Printing, PCB Layout, etc.).

Coupling together complimentary and non-complimentary technologies to solve some of the most complex problems is what drives me.

 

Favorite Quote: "The progressive development of man is vitally dependent on invention. It's ultimate purpose is the complete mastery of mind over the material world. The harnessing of the forces of nature to human needs." - Nikola Tesla – 1919

 

Open Source Electronics Prototyping

Arduino - http://arduino.cc/en/Main/HomePage

EAGLE PCB Design - http://www.cadsoftusa.com/download-eagle

Embedded Micro - http://embeddedmicro.com (FPGA Development)

Parallax - http://www.parallax.com

Particle Cellular - https://www.particle.io

PocketLab Sensors - http://thepocketlab.com

VOLTERA - http://voltera.io

Voxel8 - http://www.voxel8.co/printer

 

Automated 3D Printing - PLA (Polylactic Acid), ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene), SLA/SL (Stereolithography) and Carbon

Formlabs - http://formlabs.com (SLA/SL)

MakerBot - http://www.makerbot.com (PLA and ABS)

Markforged - http://markforged.com (PLA, Carbon Fiber, Fiberglass and Nylon)

Stratasys - http://www.stratasys.com (ABS)

TIKO - http://www.tiko3d.com

VOLTERA - http://voltera.io

Voxel8 - http://www.voxel8.co/printer

 

Automated and Manual CNC Machining

Bridgeport - http://www.bpt.com

Carbide 3D - http://carbide3d.com

Haas - http://www.haascnc.com

Jet - http://www.jettools.com/us/en/c/metalworking/190

Other Machine Company - http://othermachine.co

PocketNC - http://www.pocketnc.com

TORMACH - http://www.tormach.com

 

Automated 3D Scanning

NextEngine - http://www.nextengine.com

Thermal and Electrical Analysis

Flir - http://www.flir.com

Fluke - http://www.fluke.com

future facilities 6SigmaRoom - http://www.futurefacilities.com

 

Robotics and Automation

FANUC Robotics - http://www.fanucrobotics.com

UFactory uArm - http://ufactory.cc

VEX Robotics - http://www.vexrobotics.com

 

Automated CO2 Laser Cutting and Engraving

Boss Laser - https://www.bosslaser.com

Darkly Labs - https://darklylabs.com

Full Spectrum Laser - http://fslaser.com

Hurricane Laser - http://www.hurricanelasers.com

 

Logic Analysis

Saleae - http://www.saleae.com

 

Automated and Manual Welding

ESAB - http://www.esabna.com

Lincoln Electric - http://www.lincolnelectric.com

Miller - http://www.millerwelds.com

 

Automated and Manual CNC Plasma Cutting

Torchmate - http://torchmate.com

Pocket NC P5 - 5 Axis Desktop CNC Mill (Kickstarter Sold Out)

In September, I wrote up a blog entry (Information Below) in reference to The Pocket NC P5 - 5 Axis Desktop CNC Mill (http://www.pocketnc.com). The Pocket NC P5 - 5 Axis Desktop CNC Mill (https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/1090944145/pocket-nc-the-first-5-axis-cnc-mill-for-your-deskt?ref=nav_search) is the first 5 Axis CNC Mill that fits on your desk. The husband and wife team are making great strides that are going to enable putting affordable 5 Axis CNC machining capabilities in the hands of Makers. 

I’ve been following Pocket NC over the last year and it has been my favorite product under development. I jumped onto the Kickstarter campaign as soon as it was released. I secured a NC P5 - 5 Axis Desktop CNC Mill but they sold out very quickly. Visit http://www.pocketnc.com to be notified when Pocket NC begins accepting preorders (including internationally). GREAT JOB and CONGRATULATIONS to everyone at Pocket NC on the successful Kickstarter campaign!

Previous Engineering Blog Entry (September 2014) - Pocket NC P5 - 5 Axis Desktop CNC Mill - http://socal-engineer.com/engineering-blog/2014/9/4/pocket-nc-p5-5-axis-desktop-cnc-mill

Twitter: https://twitter.com/pocketnc
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/pocketnc 
Instagram: http://instagram.com/pocket_nc

Pocket NC Kickstarter Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NdXGNZvW7vY

Content Below from Pocket NC Kickstarter Page

What is the Pocket NC?

The Pocket NC is a 5 axis desktop CNC mill. 

Now let’s break down exactly what that means: 

Milling Machine: Today, most people are familiar with the concept of 3D printing which is an additive manufacturing process. The part is built up from the base by adding a layer of material at a time. Milling is a subtractive process where material is removed from a solid piece of stock using a sharp tool to reveal the part inside. 

CNC: CNC stands for Computer Numerical Control. This means that the machine is controlled by a series of codes and numbers output by a computer. These codes can either be output by software, or written line-by-line in a text file. For more information on the software you need, keep reading. 

5 Axis: If you are having a hard time visualizing what “5 axis” could mean, don’t worry. It’s a lot more simple than it sounds. Conventional milling machines typically can move in 3 linear axes at a time. An example of this would be a milling machine where the part fixed to the table can move back and forth in two directions (X and Y axes) and the cutting tool can move up and down (Z axis). The extra 2 axes of movement are rotational, which for the Pocket NC means that the part can also rotate about the X axis (A axis) and about the Y axis (B axis). The main advantage of this is that you can now machine on multiple faces of the part without having to refixture it. 

Machine Statistics 

X Axis: Max Speed: 40 ipm (inches per minute) · Resolution: 0.000125in · Backlash at 100% load : 0.003in · Max Travel: 4.5 in · Homing Repeatability: - +/-0.0005 in · Repeatability: +/-0.002 in at 0% load 

Y Axis: Max Speed: 40 ipm (inches per minute) · Resolution: 0.000125 in · Backlash at 100% load : 0.003 in · Max Travel: 4.8 in · Homing Repeatability: - +/-0.0005 in · Repeatability: +/-0.002 in at 0% load 

Z Axis: Max Speed: 40 ipm (inches per minute) · Resolution: 0.000125in · Backlash at 100% load : 0.003in · Max Travel: 3.45 in · Homing Repeatability: - +/-0.0005 in · Repeatability: +/-0.002 in at 0% load 

A Axis: Max Speed: 20 degrees/second · Resolution: 0.025 degrees · Backlash at 100% load : 0.05 degrees · Max Travel: 100 degrees (90 degrees +/- 5 degrees) · Homing Repeatability: - +/-0.025 degrees · Repeatability: +/-0.025 degrees at 0% load 

B Axis: Max Speed: 40 degrees/second · Resolution: 0.025 degrees · Backlash at 100% load : 0.05 degrees · Max Travel: continuous rotation · Homing Repeatability: - +/-0.025 degrees · Repeatability: +/-0.025 degrees at 0% load 

Spindle: Spindle Speed: 65-10,000 rpm (rated to 50,000 rpm) Runout 0.000078in, Lever type tool change (no wrenches necessary)

Power Output: 104 Watts · Spindle Motor: BLDC 3 Phase with Hall Feedback  

Machine Control: BeagleBone Black running Machinekit/LinuxCNC, compatible with Windows, OSx, and Linux systems

Features: Spindle Override, Feed Override, Stop, Start, Pause, Jog while pause, 5 axis simultaneous movement 

Ethernet connection 

Accepts Standard Gcode

Power Source: 90-264 VAC, 127-370 VDC, 47-63Hz 

Components: 7 NEMA 17 Motors, 3 linear lead screws with preloaded nuts, 4 rotary 8/1 belt drives, Linear Bearings 9 & 42mm 10% preload, Angular contact rotary bearings, 6061 Aluminum Frame, +/-0.002in squareness 

Machine Dimensions: Fully extended: 17.5 in wide(444.5 mm) x 12.5 in (317.5 mm) tall x 11 in (279.4 mm) deep Fully compressed: 13 in wide (330.2 mm) x 9.5 in (214.3 mm) tall x 9 in (228.6 mm) deep

Overall part tolerance: +/-0.005 in

Software Requirements 

The typical process flow for creating a part using the Pocket NC would be to draw your part using CAD (Computer Aided Design) software, generate the toolpath using CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing) software, and then interface with the machine to send over and monitor the toolpath. 

Pocket NC is excited to be partnering with Autodesk to offer their Kickstarter backers a free, one-year commercial subscription to Autodesk® Fusion 360 (Limited time offer; subject to applicable terms and conditions.) Fusion 360 is cloud-based design software that includes both CAD and CAM. One of the large barriers for 5 axis machining is that CAM software capable of 5 axis toolpaths is typically prohibitively expensive, but Fusion 360 package offers 3+2 machining which gives the user the ability to use the rotary axes to rotate to a new work surface between toolpaths.  After the one-year period is over, Fusion 360 is free for enthusiasts, hobbyists, and startups and is compatible with Windows and OSx.

Voltera Electronics Ruler

In March, I wrote up a blog entry (Information Below) in reference to The Voltera V-One (http://voltera.io). The Voltera V-One (https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/voltera/voltera-your-circuit-board-prototyping-machine) prints your circuit boards, dispenses solder paste, and reflows. This awesome machine lets you go from concept to creation in minutes.

Yesterday, I received the Voltera Electronics Ruler. I can say that I am beyond impressed with the construction and quality. It is a beautiful work of art and will be very helpful during design layouts. 

Previous Engineering Blog Entry (March 2015) - Print Your Own Circuit Boards - Voltera - Your Circuit Board Prototyping Machine - http://socal-engineer.com/engineering-blog/2015/3/6/print-your-own-circuit-boards-voltera-your-circuit-board-prototyping-machine

PocketLab Wireless Sensor

PocketLab is getting ready to ship! I just filled out the Kickstarter Survey and it should be here anytime. This little device is beyond great. Can't wait to get mine and start testing.

PocketLab is a wireless sensor for exploring the world and building science experiments. PocketLab is built for the curious explorers, educators, students, and makers to bring science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) to life like never before.
 
PocketLab connects with a single button to a smart phone, tablet, or Chromebook and instantly streams measurement data that you can see and record. PocketLab measures acceleration, force, angular velocity, magnetic field, pressure, altitude, and temperature. Using their cloud software, you can easily analyze your data, create graphs, and integrate your data with other software. PocketLab has the same features as lab equipment that costs thousands of dollars but is low cost and intuitive to use.

PocketLab can be purchased for $98.00 at http://thepocketlab.com/#buy.

Microchip Development Tools

While visiting The Sensors Expo in Long Beach, CA, I came across two Microchip (http://www.microchip.com) Development Tools (Explorer 16 Development Board and MM7150 Motion Module Evaluation Board). Below, I have included the applicable details, purchase information along with a link to all associated resources. The Motion Monitoring Solutions Target Markets are Consumer, Industrial, Wearable, Internet of Things and Medical.

The Explorer 16 Development Board is a low-cost modular development system for Microchip’s 16-bit and 32-bit microcontrollers. It supports devices from the PIC24, dsPIC and PIC32 families. A variety of families are supported with processor Plug-In Modules (PIMs) for easy device swapping.  The board includes a PICtail Plus daughter card connector for expansion boards including USB, CAN, Ethernet, wireless, graphics and many more. Coupled with the MPLAB ICD 3 In Circuit Debugger or MPLAB REAL ICE, real-time emulation and debug facilities speed evaluation and prototyping of application circuitry.

The MM7150 Motion Module PICtail/PICtail Plus Evaluation Board allows customers to easily develop motion applicaiton using Microchip's 16- and 32-bit PIC® microcontrollers. The MM7150-PICtail combines motion sensors (accelerometer, magnetometer, and gyroscope) with a motion coprocessor with integrated sensor fusion. The MM7150-PICtail allows engineers to speed designs to market and reduce the risk of launching motion based embedded and internet-of-things (IOT) applications.

Explorer 16 Development Board with 100-pin PIM - Part Number DM240001 - ($129.99)
http://www.microchip.com/DevelopmentTools/ProductDetails.aspx?PartNO=dm240001

Recommended with Explorer 16 Development Board 9V Wall Mount Power Supply - Part Number AC002014 - ($24.00)

MM7150 Motion Module Evaluation Board - Part Number AC243007 ($50.00)
http://www.microchip.com/DevelopmentTools/ProductDetails.aspx?PartNO=ac243007

Microchip Resources (PDF’s and Software) - Select Link to Download

Consumer Wearables - Current and Future

I recently came across this in the recent version of ECN. Wearables are a $20 billion dollar market in 2015, but by 2025 experts estimate the market will rise to $70 billion with healthcare wearables representing the bulk of the products. Wearables on the market today can record your biometrics, ensure you correct posture, and even track an unborn baby’s heartbeat. In the future, researchers are hoping to reduce burdens on hospitals by offering at-home medical care options and offer the ability to better track patient’s overall health. 

Below, I have listed the company URLS within the photo. 

Muse by InteraXon - http://www.choosemuse.com
Sulon Technologies Cortex - http://sulontechnologies.com
Hexoskin Smart Shirt - http://www.hexoskin.com
Upright - http://www.uprightpose.com
Apple Watch - http://www.apple.com/watch/?cid=wwa-us-kwg-watch-com
Owlet - https://www.owletcare.com
Athos Smart Shorts - http://www.liveathos.com
Ritmo Beats - http://ritmopregnancy.com
AmpStrip - http://www.ampstrip.com

Home Storage Array Comes to Life

The new Home Storage Array is coming to life (Photos Below). My configuration is an AKiTiO Thunder2 Quad Mini (Thunderbolt 2) with 4 Mushkin Enhanced Reactor MKNSSDRE1TB 2.5" 1TB SATA III Internal Solid State Drives. At a minimum, my VMFS Datastores within this configuration will average around 1300 MB/Sec Reads, 1200 MB/Sec Writes and 150,000 IOPS (4 KB Reads/Writes). This little monster will be conected to my new vSphere 6.0 Lab and CAD-CAM Solution on Mac Pro (http://socal-engineer.com/engineering-blog/2015/4/3/new-vsphere-60-lab-and-cad-cam-solution-on-mac-pro). Performance benchmarking results write-up coming soon.


AKiTiO Thunder2 Quad Mini - $349.99 (Direct Purchase from AKiTiO)
http://www.akitio.com/portable-storage/akitio-thunder2-quad-mini
-Thunderbolt 2 Interface: 20 Gb/sec
-Read Speed: 1375 MB/Sec
-Write Speed: 1232 MB/Sec
-Drives: Four 2.5” drives with SATA 6Gb/s interface slots

Mushkin Enhanced Reactor MKNSSDRE1TB 2.5" 1TB SATA III Internal Solid State Drive (SSD) - $349.99 x 4 = $1,399.96
http://www.newegg.com/Product/Product.aspx?Item=N82E16820226596

-Max Sequential Read: 560MB/s
-Max Sequential Write: 460MB/s
-4KB Random Read: Up to 74,000 IOPS
-4KB Random Write: Up to 76,000 IOPS
-Seek Time: <0.1ms
-MTBF: 1,500,000 hours

Building Circuits in Nikola Tesla's Study

Recently, I was able to stay in Nikola Tesla's Study - 3328 at The New Yorker Hotel. In September 2014, I stayed in Nikola Tesla's Room - 3327 at The New Yorker Hotel and put together an entry on my engineering blog (http://socal-engineer.com/engineering-blog/2014/9/25/nikola-teslas-room-3327-at-the-hotel-new-yorker). I have been blown away as I have studied the man Nikola Tesla and his work. He was truly ahead of his time and humbly innovated for the world. We can all learn something from his determination and his endless path of innovation. Everything from Alternating Current (AC) to Wireless Technologies came from this genius. 

In this configuration, I am using a Arduino Board from SparkFun Electronics (https://www.sparkfun.com) and a Logic Analyzer from Saleae (https://www.saleae.com). They are both great companies and have phenomenal products.

The New Yorker Hotel is my favorite hotel to stay at in New York. It is so rich in history and is truly New York City. The reservation team are always beyond helpful. They can be reached at reservations@nyhotel.com.

New vSphere 6.0 Lab and CAD-CAM Solution on Mac Pro

I’ve gotten tired of the technical issues in my vSphere 5.5 lab as I study for the CCIE Data Center. Recently, I ordered a Mac Pro (3.5GHz 6-core with 12MB of L3 cache, 64GB (4x16GB) of 1866MHz DDR3 ECC, 1TB PCIe-based flash storage and Dual AMD FirePro D500 GPUs with 3GB of GDDR5 VRAM each. This new Mac Pro will handle all of my complete vSphere 6.0 lab needs and should scale very nicely. I also ordered a AKiTiO Thunder2 Quad Mini (Thunderbolt 2) with 4 Mushkin Enhanced Reactor MKNSSDRE1TB 2.5" 1TB SATA III Internal Solid State Drives. At a minimum, my VMFS Datastores within this configuration will average around 1300 MB/Sec Reads, 1200 MB/Sec Writes and 150,000 IOPS (4 KB Reads/Writes). The entire cost for this solution was a bit pricy but it should rival most large scale solutions on a smaller scale. Performance benchmarking results write-up coming soon next month. 

Mac Pro  - $5,999.00
https://www.apple.com/mac-pro/

-3.5GHz 6-core with 12MB of L3 cache (Xeon E5 Processor)
-64GB (4x16GB) of 1866MHz DDR3 ECC
-1TB PCIe-based flash storage
-Dual AMD FirePro D500 GPUs with 3GB of GDDR5 VRAM each

AKiTiO Thunder2 Quad Mini - $349.99 (Direct Purchase from AKiTiO)
http://www.akitio.com/portable-storage/akitio-thunder2-quad-mini

-Thunderbolt 2 Interface: 20 Gb/sec
-Read Speed: 1375 MB/Sec
-Write Speed: 1232 MB/Sec
-Drives: Four 2.5” drives with SATA 6Gb/s interface slots

Mushkin Enhanced Reactor MKNSSDRE1TB 2.5" 1TB SATA III Internal Solid State Drive (SSD) - $349.99 x 4 = $1,399.96
http://www.newegg.com/Product/Product.aspx?Item=N82E16820226596

-Max Sequential Read: 560MB/s
-Max Sequential Write: 460MB/s
-4KB Random Read: Up to 74,000 IOPS
-4KB Random Write: Up to 76,000 IOPS
-Seek Time: <0.1ms
-MTBF: 1,500,000 hours

Autodesk Fusion 360 Educational Resources

Since digging into Autodesk Fusion 360, I have been very impressed with it features and capabilities. Moving forward, I plan to utilize it esclusivly as my CAD/CAM solution. The Autodesk Fusion 360 team has put together a nice Fusion 360 overview video at (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eaVb4NiVazM). 

The nice folks at Pocket NC (http://www.pocketnc.com) have partnered with Autodesk Fusion 360 as they develop their 5-Axis Desktop CNC Mill. The Pocket NC P5 is going to enable endless innovation. I’m still wrapping my head around having the ability of 5-Axis CNC Milling right on my desk. Check out and follow Pocket NC (http://www.pocketnc.com) as they prepare for their 2015 Kickstarter campaign. This month, Pocket NC put out a great video demonstrating a development version of the Pocket NC P5 coupled with Autodesk Fusion 360 (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ijqmLLjHbyk). 

Autodesk has great resources to get you started with learning Fusion 360 at http://fusion360.autodesk.com/resources. Below, I have put together a list of two companies that provide web based Autodesk Fusion 360 educational training. 

Autodesk Fusion 360 Training & Tutorials - $24.99 a Month / $249.00 a Year 
http://www.cadlearning.com/courses/autodesk-fusion-360-training-tutorials/

CADLearning for Autodesk Fusion 360 teaches the cloud-based components of Autodesk Fusion 360 used for 3D modeling in industrial and mechanical design. You’ll learn how to create and manipulate models from multiple sources and transform your design into models for simulation or document your design with 2D drawings that include dimensions and annotations. Video lessons cover creating sketch geometry, solid modeling and editing, assemblies and constraints, interoperability and much more.

106 video tutorials
5+ hours of training

CADLearning for Autodesk Fusion 360 DVD - $99.99
http://store.cadlearning.com/collections/featured/products/cadlearning-for-autodesk-fusion-360

CADLearning for Autodesk Fusion 360 teaches the cloud-based components of Autodesk Fusion 360 used for 3D modeling in industrial and mechanical design. You’ll learn how to create and manipulate models from multiple sources and transform your design into models for simulation or document your design with 2D drawings that include dimensions and annotations. Video lessons cover creating sketch geometry, solid modeling and editing, assemblies and constraints, interoperability and much more.

106 video tutorials
5+ hours of training

 

Autodesk Fusion 360 Basics - $39.00 a Month - $295.00 a Year
https://www.myigetit.com/Library/Topics/69?name=Autodesk_Fusion_360

Autodesk Fusion 360 is a direct manipulation, feature based, history free modeler which utilizes direct editing workflows. This course will teach and demonstrate the basic features for the user to effectively interact with their designs. Using sketch tools along with 2D constraints, the user will add design intent to their dimensionally accurate designs. Using the solid modeling tools the user will create single body part and well as multibody part designs. Using T-Spline modeling technology users can create free form and organic shapes for use in Industrial designs. Applying the use of direct manipulation editing tools the designs can be refined and edited. With the use of 3D assembly joints their assembly designs can be realized within Autodesk Fusion 360. With a broad support for import formats, using Autodesk Fusion 360 gives the designer powerful and easy to use 3D editing tools for model modification of data from almost any source.

Duration: 8 hrs.

HaasTec 2015

Late last week, I was able to stop by HaasTec 2015 for a visit. My first visit was HaasTec 2015 and I was blown away. Haas does a phenomenal job of connecting with customers. Engineering has always been one of my continued areas of focus over the years and I have always been more than impressed with Haas CNC Machines. As I work through my designs and setup a shop over the next couple of years, a Haas CNC Mill and Haas CNC Lathe will for sure have a nice home. Haas is constantly pushing innovation to enable customers to produce forward thinking solutions. 

These open house events also provide a nice forum to meet with some of the best exhibitors from major tooling, workholding and CAD/CAM manufacturers. I was most impressed with Raptor Workholding Products (http://raptorworkholding.com) and Autodesk Fusion 360 (http://www.autodesk.com/products/fusion-360). Over the next week, I will have a detailed blog entry in reference to Raptor Workholding Products and Autodesk Fusion 360. Both companies have phenomenal products and they will for sure be part of my solution for 5-Axis CNC Milling. 


Home CNC Machine - Carbide3D Nomad 883 CNC Machine

Engineering, machining, welding and manufacturing have all been a big part of my life since a very young age. My formal introduction to manual machining started my sophomore year in High School and I dove deep into industrial CNC machining the next year during my junior year in High School. It all started with large scale Makino CNC Machining Centers producing Caterpillar spacer decks, flywheel housings, front housings and John Deere planetary housings. At a young age, this experience made me understand the endless capabilities with these toolsets. From those early years, manufacturing in reference to design and machining have always been areas with on going focus. 

Over the last year, I’ve been looking for home office CNC machines for rapid prototyping. The Nomad 883 CNC Machine Carbide3D from Nomad (http://carbide3d.com) is beyond promising. I placed my order in late 2014 and cannot wait to get my Nomad 883 in the Summer of 2015. 

The Nomad 883 includes all of the hardware and software you need to take your 3D file and make a part. It is capable of positioning accuracy of .001” (that’s less than the thickness of a human hair). That means you can be sure that part number one will match part number 100 without any special work from you. The spindle uses an ER-11 collet to give you the flexibility to use a range of cutters with no proprietary holders. The window, dust control, rigid frame, linear motion hardware, spindle, tool length probe, table and 75 dB noise output (while roughing) are just additional bonus features. I’ve listed a few details below but encourage you to go to http://carbide3d.com to see the complete details.

My favorite video of the Nomad 883 in action is the CNC Machining of a Two-Side Action Figure at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dvGtw1Qk1F0. I’ve also included a few additional videos below. The Bamboo Enclosure version is $2,599.00 and the White HDPE Enclosure version is $2,499.00 and can be pre-ordered at http://carbide3d.com. A $250.00 deposit is all that is needed to hold your spot in line. The Carbide3D Nomad 883 is a phenomenal deal being a complete CAD/CNC solution. The Carbide3D team/staff are beyond helpful and can be reached via the main http://carbide3d.com website.

3D Printed Legos vs. CNC
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t89ZrclySZo

Nomad 883 CNC Cutting Aluminum
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lr6bP0mBjK4

Nomad 883 CNC Machine - PCB Milling
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZReH7zQ3cpc

Print Your Own Circuit Boards - Voltera - Your Circuit Board Prototyping Machine

Recently, I came across a great campaign on Kickstarter. The Voltera V-One (https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/voltera/voltera-your-circuit-board-prototyping-machine) prints your circuit boards, dispenses solder paste, and reflows. This awesome machine lets you go from concept to creation in minutes. I have included three Voltera specific videos below for reference. 

I have always been a big supporter of Kickstarter campaigns in the areas of 3D Printing, CNC Machining and Electronic Component Development. I truly believe that these ahead of their time toolset developments enable endless innovation. I’ve backed the Voltera V-One (Batch 2) at a reduced Kickstarter price of $1,499 with an estimated delivery of January 2016. After the Kickstarter campaign closes in 5 days, the price will go up to the normal general production/release price.

These boards aren't meant to replace mass manufactured PCBs. This is a prototyping tool that helps you get there faster. I personally plan to utilize the Voltera V-One for circuit board development in reference to rapid prototype development.

Voltera - Your Circuit Board Prototyping Machine
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5tuU0zvZp-I

CES 2015 - Print Your Own Circuit Boards
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5YMJrhG6Aos

Print Your Own Circuitboards with Voltera - Hardware Battlefield
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OqcAm7xGWJM

1) Insulating mask being laid down

2) Second layer bridging over first layer

3) Solder paste dispensing

4) Reflow solder

Next Generation Electrical Engineering - From the Power Plant to the Data Center (Fundamentals Overview)

Over the last few months, I have been receiving more infrastructure related inquiries. Most of these inquires are in reference to power infrastructures. Electrical engineering has always been one of my engineering disciplines. Over the weekends, I have been putting together these notes, pictures, diagrams, calculations and videos to help explain electrical fundamentals, generator function, power production, power distribution and large scale power consumption.

Part A - Electrical Fundamentals and Key Terms

Part B - Quick Overview of Generator Function - Making Electricity

Part C - Power Production Examples

Part D - Power Distribution (Grid and Data Center) Diagrams

Part E - Large Scale Power Consumption Examples

Part A - Electrical Fundamentals and Key Terms

Key Term - Electric Current

The movement of electric charge is known as an electric current, the intensity of which is usually measured in Amperes.  Current can consist of any moving charged particles; most commonly these are electrons, but any charge in motion constitutes a current.

Key Term - Ampere (Amp)

In practical terms, the ampere is a measure of the amount of electric charge passing a point in an electric circuit per unit time with 6.241 × 1018 electrons, or one coulomb per second constituting one ampere.

Ampère's force law states that there is an attractive or repulsive force between two parallel wires carrying an electric current.  This force is used in the formal definition of the Ampere, which states that it is "the constant current that will produce an attractive force of 2 × 10–7 newton per meter of length between two straight, parallel conductors of infinite length and negligible circular cross section placed one meter apart in a vacuum".  The SI unit of charge, the coulomb, "is the quantity of electricity carried in 1 second by a current of 1 Ampere".  Conversely, a current of one ampere is one coulomb of charge going past a given point per second.

Key Term - Volt

A single volt is defined as the difference in electric potential across a wire when an electric current of one ampere dissipates one watt of power.

Key Term - Watt

One watt is the rate at which work is done when an object's velocity is held constant at one meter per second against constant opposing force of one newton.

Key Term - Kilowatt

The kilowatt is equal to one thousand watts, or one sthene-metre per second.  This unit is typically used to express the output power of engines and the power consumption of electric motors, tools, machines, and heaters.  It is also a common unit used to express the electromagnetic power output of broadcast radio and television transmitters.

One kilowatt of power is approximately equal to 1.34 horsepower.  A surface area of one square meter on Earth receives typically one kilowatt of power of sunlight from the sun (on a clear day at mid day).

Key Term - Kilowatt-Hour - It is a unit of work or energy equal to that done by one kilowatt of power acting for one hour.  A Kilowatt is 1,000 watts or 1.34 Horsepower. (1 KW = 1.34 Horsepower) / 1 Megawatt = 1,000 Kilowatts or 1,340 Horsepower (1 MW = 1,341 Horsepower)

Key Term - Megawatt

The megawatt is equal to one million watts.  Many events or machines produce or sustain the conversion of energy on this scale, including lightning strikes; large electric motors; large warships such as aircraft carriers, cruisers, and submarines; large server farms or data centers; and some scientific research equipment, such as supercolliders, and also in the output pulses of very large lasers.  A large residential or commercial building may consume several megawatts in electric power and heat.

The productive capacity of electrical generators operated by a utility company is often measured in megawatts.  A typical wind turbine (or wind energy converter) has a power capacity of 1 to 3 MW.  On railways, modern high-powered electric locomotives typically have a peak power output of 5 or 6 MW, although some produce much more. The Eurostar, for example, consumes more than 12 MW, while heavy diesel-electric locomotives typically produce/consume 3 to 5 MW.  

Watt Examples

  • A person having a mass of 100 kilograms who climbs a 3 meter high ladder in 5 seconds is doing work at a rate of about 600 watts.  Mass times acceleration due to gravity times height divided by the time it takes to lift the object to the given height gives the rate of doing work or power.
  • A laborer over the course of an 8-hour day can sustain an average output of about 75 watts; higher power levels can be achieved for short intervals and by athletes.
  • A medium-sized passenger automobile engine is rated at 50 to 150 kilowatts – while cruising it will typically yield half that amount.
  • A typical household incandescent light bulb has a power rating of 25 to 100 watts; fluorescent lamps typically consume 5 to 30 watts to produce a similar amount of light.
  • A typical coal power plant produces an output of 600–700 megawatts. 
  • A typical nuclear power plant produces an output of  900–1300 megawatts.

Key Term - Confusion of Watts, Watt-Hours, and Watts per Hour

The terms power and energy are frequently confused.  Power is the rate at which energy is generated or consumed.

For example, when a light bulb with a power rating of 100W is turned on for one hour, the energy used is 100 watt-hours (W•h), 0.1 kilowatt-hour, or 360 kJ.  This same amount of energy would light a 40-watt bulb for 2.5 hours, or a 50-watt bulb for 2 hours.  A power station would be rated in multiples of watts, but its annual energy sales would be in multiples of watt-hours.  A kilowatt-hour is the amount of energy equivalent to a steady power of 1 kilowatt running for 1 hour, or 3.6 MJ (1000 watts x 3600 seconds (i.e., 60 seconds/minute x 60 minutes/hour) = 3600000 Joules = 3.6 MJ).

Terms such as watts per hour are often misused.  Watts per hour properly refers to the change of power per hour.  Watts per hour (W/h) might be useful to characterize the ramp-up behavior of power plants.  For example, a power plant that reaches a power output of 1 MW from 0 MW in 15 minutes has a ramp-up rate of 4 MW/h.  Hydroelectric power plants have a very high ramp-up rate, which makes them particularly useful in peak load and emergency situations.

Major energy production or consumption is often expressed as terawatt-hours for a given period that is often a calendar year or financial year.  One terawatt-hour is equal to a sustained power of approximately 114 megawatts for a period of one year.

The watt second is a unit of energy, equal to the joule.  One kilowatt-hour is 3,600,000 watt-seconds.  The watt-second is used, for example, to rate the energy storage of flash lamps used in photography, although the term joule is normally used rather than watt-second.

Part B - Quick Overview of Generator Function - Making Electricity

Generator operation is based on the principle of electromagnetic induction.  This means that voltage is generated when any conductor is moved at right angles through a magnetic field.  When voltage is produced in this manner, it will cause the current to flow in the conductor if that conductor is a complete circuit.

Key Terms (Below) - For Reference 

Armature - An armature starts out as a bare hardened steel shaft.  To this shaft is added a series or group of non-insulated copper wires wound close together.  They in turn will form what is called a loop.  The loops of wire are then embedded in a series of slots in an iron core. This iron core is then attached to the armature shaft.  This shaft spins and helps to generate the electrical current.  As you might guess, the size of the wire and the number of wires in the loop will affect the output of the generator.

Commutator - The commutator is a series of segments or bars that are also attached to the armature shaft at the rear of the armature.  It is the wire ends from the loops of the armature windings in the iron core that are attached to the commutator.  When this is done, a complete circuit is formed.

Field Coils - Field coils are the windings or the group of wires that are wrapped around the pole magnet.  It is the job of the field coils to take the current drawn to the pole magnet, and make it stronger.  (Field coils are the windings that are attached to the inside of the generator housing.)  This increased strength in current will force even more current to be drawn to the pole magnets, which will continue to build up current.  This is how the current produced by the generator is built up and increased, until it can be used.

Brushes - After the generator develops the current, it is the brushes that carry the current to the “field” circuit and the “load” circuit, so the electricity can be used by the battery and the accessories.  This process is called “commutation.”  The brushes will ride on the commutator segments of the armature.  Brush holders hold the brushes in position by way of spring tension.

Most automotive generators will contain two brushes, one that is grounded to the frame of the generator and one that will be insulated from the frame.  The insulated brush is the positive brush and is connected to the “A” terminal of the generator, and to one end of the field coils.  The other end of the field coil is connected to the insulated “F” terminal of the generator.

Bearing and Bushes - At either end of a generator you will find a bushing or a bearing.  They have the job of making the armature shaft run true in the housing between the field coils and pole shoes.  Bushings will be made of copper or brass and are soaked in oil before they are installed.  The brass or copper bushing material is porous and able to absorb the oil like a sponge.  This provides the lubrication between the shaft and the bushing.  They can also be re-oiled from the oiling tube on the outside of the generator.

Part C - Power Production Examples

-Combustion Turbine - Between 261 MW (Simple Cycle) and 791 MW (Combined Cycle)

-Hydroelectric Turbine Dam - Between 500 MW and 1300 MW (Configuration Example: 4 x 350 MW Turbines) = 1400 MW - Hoover Dam is at 2,080 MW (2,789,326 Horsepower) coming from 17 Turbines (9 in Arizona Wing and 8 in the Nevada Wing).  Hoover Dam generates, on average, about 4 billion kilowatt-hours of hydroelectric power each year for use in Nevada, Arizona, and California - enough to serve 1.3 million people.

  • Nuclear Reactor Turbine - Boiling Water Type - Between 500 MW and 1,300 MW 
  • Nuclear Reactor Turbine - Pressurized Water Type - Between 500 MW and 1,300 MW (Arizona Palo Verde Plant has three reactors with the largest combined generating capacity of about 3,937 MW)
  • Coal Fired Turbine - Between 500 MW and 1300 MW
  • Wind Turbine - Between 1.5 MW and 4.1 MW (Each Wind Turbine)

Note: A 1 MW generator produces 1000 KWH every hour assuming its fully loaded.  There are 8,760 hours in a year, so assuming no downtime, it would generate 8,760,000 KWH in a year.

1MW = 1000000 Watts

1 KW = 1000 Watts

1 MW = 1000 KW

1 MW for 1 hour = 1 MWH

1 MWH = 1000 KWH

Note: On average, the largest medium speed engines in current production have outputs up to approximately 20 MW (27,000 Horsepower)

Coal Fired Plant Turbine

Coal-fired units produce electricity by burning coal in a boiler to heat water to produce steam.  The steam, at tremendous pressure, flows into a turbine, which spins a generator to produce electricity.  The steam is cooled, condensed back into water, and returned to the boiler to start the process over.

Calculation: A US Coal Plant Average Size of 667 MW (4,914 Tons of Coal per Day / 120 Tons of Coal per Rail Car = 41 Rail Cars of Coal) - 667 MW Power 

Roughly 333,500 Households serviced through a 667 MW Power Plant.

Video - Coal Fired Plant Animation Video - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FnwN3wtRMbk

Fossil G Series 500MW-1100MW

Fossil G series steam turbines are suitable for 500MW-1100MW power plants and feature versatile 3-casing or 4-casing configurations with two double-flow exhaust LP turbine sections.  These turbines are ideal for subcritical, supercritical and ultra-supercritical steam conditions in both 50Hz and 60Hz.

Coal Fired Plant Turbine

Combustion Turbine

The turbine burns either natural gas or oil.  Fuel is mixed with compressed air in the combustion chamber and burned.  High-pressure combustion gases spin the turbine, which drives the generator.

Video - Combustion Turbine (Combined Cycle) Animation - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_7-WtOmf8kA

Video - Siemens SGT-750 Gas Turbine Flythrough - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eWOqXPCdBMI

Video - GE FlexAero LM6000-PH Aeroderivative Gas Turbine - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FIa8I6FE5V4

9E Heavy Duty Gas Turbine

Output (MW): 127.6 Simple Cycle, 391 Combined Cycle

The 9E gas turbine accommodates a wide range of fuels including natural gas, light and heavy distillate oil, naphtha, crude, residual oil, blast furnace gas (BFG), syngas, and biofuels.

Note: Simple Cycle involves peaking duty or mid/base load operation. The 9E gas turbine provides fast start capability for peaking duty.  For power generation, the 9E gas turbine provides 127.6 MW of reliable power.

Note: Combined Cycle is when the gas turbine generator produces electricity and captures the waste heat to make steam to generate additional electricity via a steam turbine.

Combustion Turbine

Nuclear Reactor - Boiling Water Type

Water is heated through the controlled splitting of uranium atoms in the reactor core and turns to steam.  Pumps force the water through the reactor at top speed, maximizing steam production.  Steam drives the turbines that turn the generator that makes electricity.  Cooling water from the river condenses the steam back into water.  The river water is either discharged directly back to the river or cooled in the cooling towers and reused in the plant.

US Nuclear Plant Average Size of 846 MW

  • 8 pellets needed to power a average home for a year.
  • Pellets sealed into metal tubes.

Pellet tubes welded together to form fuel bundle.

  • Several thousand fuel bundles are inserted into a large tank called a Calandria
  • Heavy Water is used as Moderator - Heavy water is 10% heavier than normal water and contains higher than normal amounts of Deuterium which is a form of Hydrogen.

Note: 1 Kilogram (2.205 Pounds) of Uranium-235 has the capacity to produce as much energy as 1,360,777 kilograms (1,500 tons) of coal.  (Uranium-235 keeps producing average power output for over 2 years at average decay rate)

Note: 3.276 Kilograms (7.222 Pounds) of Uranium-235 has the capacity to produce as much energy as 4,457,905 kilograms (4,914 tons) of coal.  (Uranium-235 keeps producing average power output for over 2 years at average decay rate)

Video - Nuclear Reactor - Boiling Water Type Animation - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TPUk5U2zf1U

Nuclear Reactor - Pressurized Water Type 

Water is heated through the splitting of uranium atoms in the reactor core.  The water, held under high pressure to keep it from boiling, produces steam by transferring heat to a secondary source of water.  The steam is used to generate electricity.  Cooling water from the river condenses the steam back into water.  The river water is either discharged directly back to the river or cooled in the towers and reused in the plant.

Video - Nuclear Reactor - Pressurized Water Type Animation - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-WPyKmsK5hs

Nuclear Reactor Turbine

GE's nuclear N series steam turbines are two-stage, reheat, tandem compound designs for nuclear applications up to 1,500 MW.  The steam turbines feature monoblock LP rotors, delivering high reliability and low cost of maintenance.

Hydroelectric Dam Turbine

Water from the reservoir rushes through the penstock into the powerhouse.  The water spins the turbine, which drives the generator.  Inside the generator is a large electromagnet that spins within a coil of wire, producing electricity.

Video - Hydroelectric Dam Animation - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KJwxg0AQTbU

Hydroelectric Dam Turbine Diagram

Wind Turbine

A turbine and gear box are mounted in a casing called a nacelle, and rotor blades are attached to the turbine.  The turbine localizes the energy of the turning rotor blades in a single rotating shaft that generates electricity.

Wind Turbine Diagram

The 4.1-113 Wind Turbine is designed specifically for the offshore environment, with reliability and availability as the primary drivers.  This machine includes direct-drive technology, built-in redundancy in the generator and converter, and in-situ repair capabilities.

Wind Turbine

Pumped Storage Plant 

During periods of low power demand, the pump-turbine pumps water up into the mountaintop reservoir.  During periods of high demand water from the reservoir flows down through the mountain to the power plant, generating electricity.

Pumped Storage Plant Diagram

Solar Photovoltaic System

Photovoltaic (PV) systems use semiconductor cells that convert sunlight directly into electricity.  Direct current from the PV cells, which are arrayed in flat panels, flow into inverters that change it to alternating current.

Solar Photovoltaic System Diagram

Methane Gas Facility

Pipes collect methane gas produced by decaying waste, and the gas is burned to generate electricity.

Methane Gas Facility Diagram

Methane Gas Facility.jpg

Part D - Power Distribution (Grid and Data Center) Diagrams

Electricity Grid Schematic

Power Distribution Network (Based on 240 Home Voltage - EMEA Example)

Data Center Critical Power Delivery Chain

Part E - Large Scale Power Consumption Examples

D1 - Power Usage Baseline for Examples (Cisco Allen Data Center)

Data Center Power Usage: 5 MW (Coming from Two 2.25 MW Electrical Power Feeds)

Two 8.4 MW Generators (11,264 Horsepower Each / 22,529 Horsepower Total)

Up to 18.5 kW/rack, 6.5 kW (Average)

Note: There are 1,000 kW in 1 MW (1,341 HP)

D2 - Cruse Ship Example - 75.6 MW - Equates to 15 Cisco Allen Data Centers Power Usage

Royal Caribbean Mariner of the Seas (Similar Specifications to Carnival Dream Cruise Ship) is producing (Diesel-Electric Power Generation) 75,600 kW at 2,871 Gallons an hour of Diesel fuel.  This ship consumes 35,000 gallons of Diesel fuel per day.  The Royal Caribbean Mariner of the Seas trips are a 3, 4, 5, 7, 15 and 16 day durations.  A 16 day trip consumes 560,000 Gallons of Diesel / 4299 (Total Passenger and Crew Count) / 16 Days = 8.14 Gallons of diesel fuel per person per day.  This form of mass transportation proves to be very efficient. 

Total Trip Fuel Consumed (For All Systems - Main Propulsion and All On-Board Facilities)

3 Days: 105,000 Gallons of Diesel

4 Days: 140,000 Gallons of Diesel

5 Days: 175,000 Gallons of Diesel

7 Days: 245,000 Gallons of Diesel

15 Days: 525,000 Gallons of Diesel

16 Days: 560,000 Gallons of Diesel

Royal Caribbean Mariner of the Seas has diesel-electric machinery, consisting of six Wärtsilä 12V46 diesel engines, with a total power of 75,600 kW.  This is the same power plant configuration as the Carnival Dream Cruise Ship.

Power Generation Details

Class & Type: Voyager Class Cruise Ship

Tonnage: 138,00 GT

Length:    x m (1,020 ft)

Beam: x m (157.50 ft)

Draft: 29 ft (8.8 m)

Decks: 15

Installed power: 6 × Wärtsilä 12V46 Diesel Engines (12,600 kW Each)

Total Power Generation: 75,600 kW

Propulsion: Diesel-Electric

Two ABB Azipods, one Fixipod and Four Bow Thrusters

Speed: 22 knots (41 km/h; 25 mph) (Service)

24 knots (44 km/h; 28 mph) (Max)

Capacity: 3,114 Passengers

Crew: 1,185

Fuel Consumption at Full Speed: 10,637 kg/h (2,871 gal/h)

Wärtsilä 12V46 Diesel Engine

D3 - Medium Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) for Steel Production - 175 MW - Equates to 35 Cisco Allen Data Centers Power Usage

In the Electric Arc Furnace (EAF), recycled steel scrap is melted and converted into high quality steel by using high-power electric arcs.  The main task of most modern EAFs is to convert the solid raw materials to liquid crude steel as fast as possible and then refine further in subsequent secondary steelmaking processes.

Small Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) - To 80 MVA

Medium Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) - To 140 MVA

Large Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) - To 320+ MVA

8x 32MVA Transformers/Rectifiers for 256 MVA total power (175 MW developed at the arc)

Medium sized Electric Arc Furnaces begin at 80 MVA and large at 140 MVA.  The largest AC furnace in Turkey draws 250 MVA and Tokyo Steel has a Danieli-built continuous-charge 320 MVA DC furnace.  It has 2 top electrodes, 4 bottom electrodes (2 per 'phase') and six transformers. 

Video - Siemens Electric Arc Furnace Quantum - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m2bMpDsV5y0

Video - Electric Arc Furnace - Furnace Operation - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jtbEf0eC9cc

Video - Electric Arc Furnace - Close Up During Electric Arch - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YNEn26vfIpc

Basic Layout of Electric Arc Furnace Diagram


 


Income, Child Birth Cost, Child Annual Continued Cost and Education Costs - Summary

In late 2011, I read an article on CNN (http://www.cnn.com/2011/10/17/opinion/sachs-global-population/index.html?&hpt=hp_c2) titled "With 7 Billion on Earth, a Huge Task Before Us" and it got my mind turning. I went through a ton of data around the topics listed in the summary below and the results surprised me. I never imagined all of the associated costs with having children along with the education. What scares me more than anything is what they will be faced with once they graduate (At a Higher Education Level). Very fierce competition for positions that do not make good business sense. I found Section E - Great (Innovators) Examples (Education: Dropout of High School or College) very interesting. The net worth of the 7 tech individuals (That Either Dropped out of High School or College) is 119.40 Billon US Dollars combined. I believe that individuals that think outside of the box (true innovators) are the ones that will truly change the world. Once I get a free moment, I plan to update these figures for 2015.

Summary of Findings

A - United States Median Household Income ($50,000.00 "Mid" to $70,000.00 "High End"Actual Metrics) - Based Upon 1967 to 2010 US Census Bureau Data

B - United States Child Birth Cost

C - United States Child Raising Costs

D - United States Higher Education Costs

E - Great (Innovators) Examples (Education: Dropout of High School or College)

A - United States Median Household Income ($50,000.00 "Mid" to $70,000.00 "High End"Actual Metrics) - Based Upon 1967 to 2010 US Census Bureau Data

US Census Bureau Average (Age 25+) Advanced Degree Salary - $72,824.00

US Census Bureau Male (Age 25+) Advanced Degree  Salary - $90,761.00

US Census Bureau Female (Age 25+) Advanced Degree Salary  - $50,756.00

Dual Earning (Male/Female) (Advanced Degree) Salary: $141,517.00 (Note: United States Median Household Max Average Income: $111,582.00)

Dual Earning (Male/Male) (Advanced Degree) Salary: $181,522.00 (Note: United States Median Household Max Average Income: $111,582.00)

Dual Earning (Female/Female) (Advanced Degree) Salary: $101,512.00 (Note: United States Median Household Max Average Income: $111,582.00)

Income Statistics Based Upon Education

Persons/Households Income

B - United States Child Birth Cost

  • An Uncomplicated Vaginal Birth: Nearly $7,000
  • An ComplicatedVaginal Birth: Nearly $9,000
  • An Uncomplicated C-Section: Over $12,000
  • An Complicated C-Section: Nearly $16,000

Note: United States had the highest costs for the countries included.

C- United States Child Raising Costs

Child Raising Costs (From Birth to Age 18) - $226,920.00 (Not Including College)

Calculations - United States Median Household Income ($50,000.00 "Mid" to $70,000.00 "High End"Actual Metrics) - Based Upon 1967 to 2010 US Census Bureau Data

One Child:  $226,920.00.00 - $12,606.67 per Year While Children are Under 18 United States Median Household Income ($50,000.00 "Mid" to $70,000.00 "High End"Actual Metrics)

Two Children: $453,840.12 - $25,213.34 per Year While Children are Under 18 United States Median Household Income ($50,000.00 "Mid" to $70,000.00 "High End"Actual Metrics)

Three Children: $680,760.00 - $37,820.00 per Year While Children are Under 18 United States Median Household Income ($50,000.00 "Mid" to $70,000.00 "High End"Actual Metrics)

D - United States Higher Education Costs

University of Kansas Example  (Living on Campus)

Tuition and Fees: $8,733.00 (In-State); $21,538.00 (Out-of-State)

Books: $800.00

Room and Board: $7,070.00

Other Expenses: $4,226.00

Total Annual Cost: $20,829.00 (In-State) $33,634.00 (Out-of-State)

Total Bachelor's Degree (4 Years) Cost: $83,316.00 (In-State) $134,536.00 (Out-of-State)

Total Bachelor's Degree (6 Years) Cost: $124,974.00 (In-State) $201,804.00 (Out-of-State) - See Note A Below

UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) Example (Living on Campus)

Tuition and Fees: $12,686.00 (In-State); $35,756.00 (Out-of-State)

Health Insurance: $1,225.00

Books: $1,509.00

Room and Board: $13,968.00

Transportation: $789.00

Personal: $1,368.00

Total Annual Total Cost: $31,544.00 (In-State) $54,422.00 (Out-of-State)

Total Bachelor's Degree (4 Years) Cost: $126,176.00 (In-State) $217,688.00 (Out-of-State)

Total Bachelor's Degree (6 Years) Cost: $189,264.00 (In-State) $326,532.00 (Out-of-State) - See Note A Below

Note: The average student now takes six years or more to earn a bachelor’s degree in the United States. Coupled with the recent slide of the U.S. from first to twelfth place in the numbers of adults holding degrees.

E - Great (Innovators) Examples (Education: Dropout of High School or College)

Bill Gates (Microsoft)

Net Worth:  59 Billion (As of Sep 2011)

Education: Dropout, Harvard University

Mark Zuckerberg (Facebook)

Net Worth:  17.5 Billion (As of Sep 2011)

Education: Dropout, Harvard University

Michael Dell (Dell Computers)

Net Worth:  15 Billion (As of Sep 2011)

Education: Dropout, University of Texas Austin

Paul Allen (Microsoft)

Net Worth:  13.2 Billion (As of Sep 2011)

Education: Dropout, Washington State University

Steve Jobs (Apple)

Net Worth: 7 Billion (As of Sep 2011)

Education: Dropout, Reed College

Sir Richard Branson

Net Worth:  4.2 Billion (As of March 2011)

Education: Dropout, High School

Dustin Moskovitz (Facebook)

Net Worth:  3.5 Billion (As of Sep 2011)

Education: Dropout, Harvard University

FLIR ONE Thermal Imager

Over the years, one of my areas of focus has been in reference to thermal imaging. The thermal imaging cameras that I utilize detect radiation in the infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum (roughly 9,000–14,000 nanometers or 9–14 µm) and produce images of that radiation, called thermograms.

A couple of months ago, I purchased the new FLIR ONE Thermal Imager that is compatible with the iPhone 5/5s. I have been carrying the FLIR ONE Thermal Imager with me and shot the photos (Below) within a Lab Data Center. A subset of these features (at a basic level) could be used for proper airflow verification and electrical load verification upon startup. I have been very impressed with the capabilities of this $350 Thermal Imager. 

Overview 

FLIR ONE is a lightweight accessory that in combination with its free app transforms your iPhone 5 or 5s into a powerful thermal imager. When you attach it to your iPhone and access the app, it displays live infrared imagery so you can see the world from a thermal perspective. FLIR ONE works by detecting heat energy, giving you the ability to "see" and measure minute temperature variances. 

FLIR ONE Thermal Imager - $349.95

Main Page: http://flir.com/flirone/

Apple Store: http://store.apple.com/us/product/HG362LL/A/flir-one-thermal-imager

Note: The image quality in the embedded photos (Below) are substantially reduced for faster web page load times.

Custom 127 Cubic Inch - 300 mm Rear - Open Primary Chopper Build

Chopper that I built in Kansas before moving to California. Below, I have included YouTube 127 Cubic Inch Chopper Videos (HD), Chopper Final-Build Process Photos, Chopper Photo Shoot Photos, Chopper Wiring Diagram (Quick Sketch) and Complete Chopper Specification Details for this build.

  • YouTube 127 Cubic Inch Chopper Videos (HD)

1 - 127 Cubic Inch Chopper Build Process Slideshow

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mCC0DVBX5fs

2 - 127 Cubic Inch Chopper Startup (Street View)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4WtoBs6V5Pc

  • Chopper Final and Build Process Photos (Below)

  • Chopper Wiring Diagram

  • Complete Chopper Specification Details

Main Chopper Details

-300mm SeriesTire Thick Frame with 46 Degrees of Rake

-Negative 2" Downtube Stretch and 5" BB Stretch, ALL TIG Welded

-127 Cubic Inch Polished Ultima Series Motor

-6 Speed RSD Polished Transmission

-Polished Billet Wheels

-Celtic 3 3/8" Open Belt w/ Outer Bearing Support

-Arched Bottom 4.5" Stetched Gas Tank

-13" Strutless Steel Rear Fender

-Daisey Cutter RSD Exhaust

-Chrome Heat Shields

-Black Solo Leather Seat

-Chrome Handlebars and Controls

-Chrome Front Headlight and Tail Light assemblies

-Matching Rotors and Pulleys

-HHI Chrome Braking System

-Avon Venom Tires

-Chrome 41mm Front End

-Chrome Triple Trees

-Dakota Digital Mini Digital Speedometer

Engine Details

-127ci Show Polished Engine with Rated Power of 140 HP and 135 ft lbs of torque (Includes Compression Releases)

-Polished S&S Super "G" Carb.-Billet 3 3/8" Belt Drive with Outer Bearing Support 

-6 Speed Ultima Transmission or a RSD transmission

-32 Amp Charging System with Chrome Voltage Regulator

-1.75Kw Chrome Starter with a Solenoid Start Switch

-Chrome Oil Filter and Chrome Mount

-Single Fire Ignition and Chrome Ignition Cover

-Single Fire DYNA 3 ohm Coils with Single Plug Heads

-Chrome Tribal Coil Bracket for Dyna Coils

-Donnie Smith Coil Covers

127" Engine Specifications

-Bore: 4.25

-Stroke: 4.5

-Piston: Forged

-Compression: 10.2:1

-Rated Power: 140RW HP

-135 LB FT Torque

-S&S Super "G" Manifold

-Camshaft: .640 Lift

-CRANE Pushrods

-CHROME Harley Davidson Nose Cone

-Harley Rockers

-Billet Oil Pump

-Chrome Tappet Blocks

Primary Drive

-Custom 3 3/8" Belt Drive Manufactured from Billet 6061 T6 Aluminum

-Outer Bearing Support, Goodyear Belt, Heavy Duty Alto Clutch Assembly and Starter Shaft

Exhaust

-Daisey Cutter Exhaust System

-Stepped: 1"3/4 to 2"1/4

-Transmission Mounted

Forward Controls

-Made from Billet 6061 Aluminum with hardened stainless steel pivot points

-5/8 bore Master Cylinder

-Adjustable shifter and brake arms

-Triple Chrome Plated for a high luster

Gas Tank

Gas Tanks made from 14 gauge steel, have an exclusive grommet mounting system, phosphate etched to help prevent corrosion, and made for screw-in pop-up gas caps.

Holds Approximately 4 gallons

Overall Length: 23.25"

Tunnel Length: 23.25"

Tunnel width: 2.00"

Overall width: 13.50"

Height: 8.86"

Nikola Tesla’s Room - 3327 at The New Yorker Hotel

Recently, I was fortunate enough to stay at The New Yorker Hotel (Manhattan, NY) (http://www.newyorkerhotel.com) in room 3327. Room 3327 at The New Yorker Hotel was where Nikola Tesla (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikola_Tesla) lived from 1933 through 1943 and where he passed away on January 7, 1943. Room 3327 was his bedroom and room 3328 was his study. The New Yorker Hotel has been beautifully restored and the staff is absolutely phenomenal. They were kind enough the give me the Nikola Tesla - The New Yorker Hotel Handout - September 2014 (Download Link Below). As an engineer, I have always greatly admired Nikola Tesla along with his great innovations. 

One evening, I had a bit of free time to walk over to Bryant Park (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bryant_Park) where Mr. Tesla spent time everyday feeding pigeons. Bryant Park is a beautiful park with great energy. I can see why Mr. Tesla found it to be so peaceful.

Nikola Tesla - The New Yorker Hotel Handout - September 2014 PDF (Click to Download) - 18.1 MB

Nikola Tesla’s Room 3327 at The New Yorker Hotel - September 2014

Nikola Tesla’s Room 3327 at The New Yorker Hotel - September 2014

Nikola Tesla’s Room 3327 and 3328 at The New Yorker Hotel - 1941

Nikola Tesla’s Room 3327 and 3328 at The New Yorker Hotel - 1941

Nikola Tesla’s Room 3327 at The New Yorker Hotel - January 1943 (Left) and September 2014 (Right)

Nikola Tesla’s Room 3327 at The New Yorker Hotel - January 1943 (Left) and September 2014 (Right)

Nikola Tesla’s Room 3327 at The New Yorker Hotel - January 1943 (Left) and September 2014 (Right)

Nikola Tesla’s Room 3327 at The New Yorker Hotel - January 1943 (Left) and September 2014 (Right)

Nicola Tesla with King Peter II of Yugoslavia in Room 3327 - June 1942 (Top) and September 2014 (Bottom)

Nicola Tesla with King Peter II of Yugoslavia in Room 3327 - June 1942 (Top) and September 2014 (Bottom)

Bryant Park - September 2014

Bryant Park - September 2014